New paper: Post-politics, crisis, and Ireland’s ‘ghost estates’ by Cian O’Callaghan, Mark Boyle, and Rob Kitchin published in Political Geography. The paper is available here (open access until 27 September 2014).

Abstract: This paper argues that the global economic recession provides an instructive point to reconsider recent theorisations of post-politics for two reasons. First, theories of the post-political can help us to understand the current neoliberal impasse, and second, current transformations provide us with an empirical basis to test the limits of these explanatory frameworks. While the resurgence of neoliberal policies, evidenced through the state-sponsored rescue of the financial sector and the introduction of harsh austerity measures in many countries, appear to confirm post-politics, various protest movements have testified to a concurrent re-politicisation of the economy. Furthermore, crises constitute periods of disruption to the discursive and symbolic order, which open a space for hegemonic struggle, however fleeting. We focus our analysis on Ireland’s ‘ghost estates’ – residential developments left abandoned or unfinished after the property crash – and their treatment within mainstream print media. We argue that in the context of crash, the ‘ghost estate’ functioned as an ‘empty signifier’ through which hegemonic struggles over how to narrate, and thus re-inscribe, the event of the crisis were staged. We explore the double role played by ‘ghost estates’: firstly, as an opening for politics, and secondly, as a vehicle used to discursively contain the crisis through a neoliberal narrative of ‘excess’. We argue that our analysis offers an instructive example of how post-politicisation occurs as a process that is always contingent, contextual, and partial, and reliant on the cooption and coproduction of existing cultural signifiers with emergent narrations of crisis.

Amongst everything else that went array during the boom years in Ireland was the lack of any significant critical media analysis of the property sector and related fields. As has been documented by Julien Mercille, the majority of commentary during this time gave further fuel to the unsustainable model then being pursued. This was supplemented by newspaper property sections festooned with glossy adverts for the latest in lifestyle possibilities. It should therefore be seen as a positive step that one of the key differences between now and then is that the level of discussion and debate has moved on somewhat. For example, with particular reference to Dublin, we have had a significant amount of discussion within various media outlets as to whether or not we are witnessing another bubble. Such discussion is something that should be welcomed.

However, for all the positives within this discourse, the debate continues to be dominated by discussion that is fundamentally oriented towards market forces above all else. While there is a certain level of discussion about the need for social housing, the rhetoric of ‘supply and demand’ represents the dominant discourse around housing. This, on one level, is hardly surprising given Ireland’s recent trajectory. Yet it is deeply problematic in terms of thinking through the wider dynamics of the built environment. We are seeing the continued dominance of something that is fundamental to our everyday human needs by a set of economic assumptions that often run against those very same fundamental needs. This is a set of assumptions which perceives the very tools which we should be promoting and fostering as being the key problem and blockage. For example, in a recent piece, Ronan Lyons commented: “What the decade to 2007 tells us is that planners should be very wary of directing where buildings and people should go“. In laying the blame at one particular cohort, this is an approach which deems planning as something which is simply about regulation and stands outside wider societal norms, politics or economic forces. To place blame on planning or planners without taking into a account weaknesses in governance and wider structural forces misses a significant amount about how intertwined the economic boom was with Ireland’s built environment. Following from this, in recent days, Karl Deeter, writing in the Irish Times, in an otherwise critical piece, put forward the following: “The solution is to swamp the market with supply. To do this we need to make the right to build on land you own implicit.” Again, we see a worrying desire to revert to a Laissez-faire approach to housing development and planning more generally. This is justified through a selective reading of German and Swiss land-use policies. While for the most part Deeter is opposed to going back to a boom-time scenario, he seems to miss the possibility that the deregulation of planning may actually lead us back to such a scenario again.

If anything, now is a time where we need a greater focus on the potential for regional and urban planning, not a cry for less regulation. For this to even become a possibility, there is a need to shift the discourse around the built environment to one that puts the use-value of housing first and foremost. In so doing, it becomes important to recognize that housing is also just one element amongst many within the built environment. It is a central building block of our communities, towns, cities and, thus our entire society. There is a need to actively promote the discussion of housing in a much broader sense and recognize that for a functioning, balanced and more equitable society we need approaches which are about the tenets of society first and fore-most, not the abstract modes by which these are delivered. As a starting point, such a discussion would entail looking more holistically at different sectors, and bring together discussion about housing (including social housing) and societal development.

Philip Lawton

The ESRI published a report this morning concerning housing supply projections up to 2021. Along with the Housing Agency housing supply report published in April 2014 and the CSO regional population projections published in December 2013, it suggests the need to create substantial new supply in the Dublin region and the other principal cities — no surprise to anyone who has been trying to buy in the region or is on the social housing waiting list.

To summarise: housing need projections

The ESRI report details projected housing supply need until 2021. It argues that there will be an increase in household demand of 180,000 units, but because of oversupply in many parts of the country only 90,000 new units will need to be built, some 12,500 per year. 56,000 (60%) of these need to be in Dublin, 8000 per year. 26% more will need to be in the Dublin commuter counties of Meath, Kildare, Louth and Wicklow. Overall, 86% of all new build will need to be in the Greater Dublin region. However, in many counties, the report suggests that new supply will not be needed because of existing oversupply. Indeed, Donegal, Kerry, Mayo, Tipperary, and all the Upper Shannon counties of Leitrim, Sligo, Cavan, Roscommon and Longford are projected to still have oversupply in 2021.

The Housing Agency report analyzed housing need for 272 towns and cities across the country for the period 2014-18. It argued that there was a need for 80,000 new units, or 16,000 per annum. 37,500 units (47%) would need to be built in Dublin, or 7,500 units per annum.

Both reports use a fairly standard housing projection model using housing stock, population projections, household size, vacancy and obsolescence.

The CSO regional population projections gave a mid-term estimate of population numbers in 2031 using two scenarios. The projections predicted that Dublin population would grow by between 96,000 and 286,000, and the Mid-East region by 77,000 to 144,000. In the upper scenario the Greater Dublin region would therefore see its population grow by over 400,000. In contrast, in the lower scenario, the Border region population would increase by just 18,000 and the West by 17,000. Although these figures relate to population, they will clearly need to be housed and these figures suggest the need for substantially more housing stock over the next 17 years.

There is pretty good harmonisation between the ESRI and Housing Agency reports, both suggesting that c.8000 houses need to be built in Dublin per annum to meet demand.  The overall national required rate of between 12,500-16,000 per annum is actually quite modest.  Typically over the past forty five years new build has been 20-30,000 per annum, rising to 40,000+ post 1998.  12,500 is in fact lower that the lowest build rate going back to when DECLG records start in 1970.  In other words, this is by no means an excessive ambition.

So why do we need supply in Dublin given the crash, oversupply, emigration, etc?

In short, the oversupply of the boom for houses in Dublin as a whole was relatively small, and there wasn’t one in South Dublin. There was, however, a reasonably large overhang of apartments. However, since 2008 the three main drivers of housing demand have been growing: natural increase, in-migration to the city, and household fragmentation. These have soaked up the oversupply. On the other side of the equation housing supply has been minimal. In 2013 only 1360 units were built in the four Dublin local authorities (only 8301 nationwide, over half of which were one-offs and generally not for sale on the open market). In short, over the past seven years we’ve moved from having excess supply to excess demand in Dublin and some other urban locations.

So if there is demand why isn’t there supply?

Good question. Housing supply is shaped by a number of factors: demand, available zoned land, planning permission, building costs (materials, labour), regulatory conditions/costs (taxes, levies, fees, etc), finance (for developers and consumers), and ability to make a profit.

In theory a lot of the right criteria for creating supply exist. There is an excess of demand. There are 6400 acres of zoned serviced land available in the four Dublin authorities for 132,000 units. There are a lot of outstanding planning permissions still in effect and LAs want to give permission for developments that meet development plan/zoning criteria. Material and labour costs of significantly lower than the boom time.

And yet, supply does not seem to be coming on stream and there seem to be blockages across the board. With respect to land, it may be the case that owners are not bringing it to development because they bought it in the boom and can’t afford to develop at present house prices. With respect to planning, it may be that developers are seeking permissions that contravene development plans or are trying to alter existing permissions. The property industry also say that the system needs streamlining and simplifying. They also make the case that there are too many taxes and disincentives attached to building such as development levies, VAT, stamp duty, building reg costs, etc that amount to a sizable proportion of any sale price. Finance is a critical issue. Developers need a sizable amount of upfront cash to secure development loans, yet many are bust from the boom or do not have such reserves.

So what are we to do?

The government needs to quickly evaluate each of the potential blockages and work out solutions that are fair and do not undermine good planning and build quality or excessively boost profit at the state’s expense. By quickly I mean weeks, not months and certainly not years. The longer that supply is constrained the more demand there will be on existing stock and house prices will continue to rise. The Construction 2020 strategy is full of task forces, review groups, consultation exercises and very short on actual policy and implementation. We need supply coming on stream as quickly as possible in the Dublin region and some other urban locales (though certainly not in many parts of the country). Construction 2020 thus needs to be fast tracked. After all, 2020 is meant to be an end date, not the date ground is broken.

Rob Kitchin

On Tuesday, the European Commission published its Sixth Report on Economic, Social and Territorial Cohesion. The report, which is released every three years and charts the progress in implementing EU Cohesion Policy and European Structural and Investment (ESI) Funds, includes a wealth of evidence and data on the performance of Europe’s member states and regions over the period of the economic crisis. Its publication comes at a particularly important juncture for Ireland, which is in the process of reforming local and regional governance, and finalising its plans on how to use EU funding between 2014 and 2020.

Overall, and unsurprisingly, the key message from the report is that across Europe regional disparities are widening due to the uneven impact of the economic crisis. This is particularly evident with regard to regional unemployment rates. In 2008, five EU regions had an unemployment rate above 20%. In 2013, the number had increased to 27. Among highly-developed member states, Ireland and Spain stand out as having suffered the biggest reduction in employment rates while having the highest productivity gains. Regional disparities within countries have also widened significantly. Between 2008 and 2011, two out of every three EU regions experienced a reduction in GDP per head, with the Border, Midlands and Western region of Ireland amongst those with the steepest decline. Ireland, along with Greece and Spain, also experienced the biggest fall in the EU Human Development Index – which measures health, education and income/employment – between 2008 and 2013.


The Irish case shows some interesting idiosyncrasies which may have some important implications for the framing of future regional and spatial policy. For example, amongst more developed countries across Europe, low work intensity is typically more prevalent in cities, with the exception of Ireland. This clearly reflects national policy of promoting the Dublin city-region as a growth pole for global Foreign Direct Investment, most recently elucidated in the revised statement of government priorities, and the fact that the Irish crisis has been most acute outside cities. However, absolute deprivation rates remain on average 5% higher in cities than in the rest of the country. In respect of R&D – a major focus of Ireland’s drive to attract inward investment – the report states that, because manufacturing is spatially concentrated, it is unrealistic to expect that all regions can reach the Europe 2020 target for R&D spending and many regions should focus instead on other ways to innovate.

Regional Governance

In the context of the major local and regional governance reforms ongoing in Ireland, the report notes that EU sub-national governments contribute significantly to public investment. It further finds that this capacity is tightly correlated with the ability of sub-national governments to generate their own autonomous fiscal resources. In 2013, around 55% of total public investment in the EU-28 was carried out by sub-national authorities. However, in the case of Ireland, this share has fallen from 60% in 2000 to just 21% in 2013 – the sharpest decline in Europe. By contrast, central governments in 14 countries, especially in Germany, Lithuania, Sweden and Luxembourg, have increased support to local and regional authorities. The report concludes that it is no coincidence that in most of the countries in which net transfers to sub-national authorities increased, the recession was of limited duration and there was less need for fiscal consolidation.

LA Spending

As regional disparities increase, the importance of Cohesion Policy (worth €1.2 billion to Ireland) as a critical funding lever to suport investments in SMEs, R&D, ICT, energy efficiency, and physical infrastructure, and to cushion the impact of the crisis comes into ever sharper focus. The report places a major emphasis on governance quality and notes that poor quality governance institutions can directly and indirectly hinder social and economic development and limit the impact of Cohesion Policy. The Commission has therefore recognised the central importance of improving governance at all levels and is particularly supportive of the increasing trend towards regionalisation in many parts of the EU. As these sub-national authorities acquire more autonomy and more responsibility for public expenditure, the report endorses the principles of effective and integrated management of public investment recently approved by the OECD.

Gavin Daly

  • The Commission also launched a new Cohesion Policy open data platform. Users can explore Report data with a range of interactive maps and charts.
  • The Sixth Cohesion Forum will be held in Brussels on the 8h  and 9th of September


espon logo

Lewis Dijkstra of the European Commission and Editor of the Sixth Cohesion Report will speak at the ‘Creating the Regions of Tomorrow -Maximising Ireland’s Reform Opportunity’ conference which will be held on Friday 26th of September, 2014 in the Renehan Hall at NUI, Maynooth, County Kildare.

The Final Conference Programme is Now Available to download




Got us home

Back in March, Taoiseach Enda Kenny made the claim that “If you had 30,000 three- bedroom detached houses in Dublin you’d sell them all in a week. That’s the pent-up demand that’s there”. This has been part of a discourse that seeks to once again talk up the property market; to encourage the construction and sale of houses as a means to both stimulate the economy and to provide housing through the mechanisms of the private market.
The casual slippage back into the development logic of the Celtic Tiger era seeks to ignore both the remaining material evidence of the property crash – in the form of the persistent problems of mortgage arrears, negative equity, and unfinished developments – and the burgeoning housing crisis in the Dublin region.
In short, this strategy seeks to resurrect the property market to the detriment of addressing the housing crisis.
To tackle these issues, the group Housing Action Now have produced a Manifesto For the Right to Housing calling for an end to “market-based policies of debt-fuelled home ownership”. To deal with the housing crisis, which will only worsen if left to the private market, the provide a series of solutions including regulating the private rental sector, homelessimplementing a policy of zero evictions, providing social housing, and providing traveler specific accommodation.

“The manifesto provides a snapshot of the housing crisis and proposes clear, meaningful solutions in an accessible format. We hope it will also serve to bring together all those who believe in the right to housing and facilitate discussion on how we can bring this about”.

The manifesto will be launched today at 6pm in the Teacher’s Club on Parnell Square. A discussion on this crucial issue will follow.
A short version of the manifesto for online sharing is here. The full version is available here.

Cian O’Callaghan


Conference: Local Resistance, Global Crisis: developing communities of solidarity and Left Politics for the 21st Century

Global crisis, austerity, rising inequality, climate change, and the destruction of communities have been met in recent years with significant protest from new social movements, radical Left political parties and local campaigns.
This conference provides a space for academics and community and political activists to reflect and discuss diverse strategies, alternatives and politics that aim to progress social and spatial justice, radical equality, democracy, and human rights, from the local to the global level.

The Conference takes place on Friday June 13th and Saturday June 14th, Renehan Hall, South Campus, NUI Maynooth

To register contact the conference organiser, Dr Rory Hearne at the Department of Geography, NUI Maynooth at

Local Resistance, Global Crisis: developing communities of solidarity and Left Politics for the 21st Century

Conference Programme
Friday June 13th
Renehan Hall, South Campus NUI Maynooth
Registration & Tea/Coffee

Austerity & Resistance

• Neoliberal hegemony and socialist renewal in global society, Owen Worth (University of Limerick)
• Gender & Crisis Claire McGing (Department of Geography, NUIM)
• Crisis? What Crisis? Neighborhood strategies of survival in the Spanish Context Rosa Cerarols and Toni Luna, Universitat Pompeu Fabra of Barcelona
• The politics of resistance & transformation: Is Another Ireland/Another World Possible? Rory Hearne, Department of Geography, NUI Maynooth



11.15 -1.15
State funding, partnership and democracy

• State Funding and Dissent, Brian Harvey (independent social researcher)
• Human Rights in Practice in Dolphin House, Debbie Mulhall (Rialto Rights InAction)
• The Experience of the Irish Traveller Movement, Brigid Quilligan (Director, ITM)
• Dissent or delusion: does state funding of Civil Society Organisation (CSO) advocacy enhance or undermine democracy? Anna Visser, Equality Studies Centre, UCD
• Searching for the “crack that lets the light in’ 25 years of community empowerment, Cecilia Forrestal, Community Action Network)
• The Men’s shed Movement in Ireland, John Evoy, Irish Men’s shed Association

Lunch Provided

Crafting a politics of hope: New Left Parties, new politics
• Does Ireland Need A New Left Party Helena Sheehan (DCU), Kathleen Lynch (UCD), Tom O Connor (CIT)
• A Review of the Left Wing Vote in the European and Local Elections 2014 Adrian Kavanagh (NUIM)
• Post-politics and Neoliberalism in Ireland, Cian O Callaghan, NUI Maynooth


Key note presentations:
• Solidarities in pursuit of Social and Climate Justice David Featherstone, Department of Geography, Glasgow
• Crisis regimes, resistance and solidarity in Greece Costis Hadjimichalis, Department of Geography, Harokopio University, Athens

7.30 pm
• This documentary created by Donnacha Ó Briain, the award winning director of “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised”, chronicles the experiences of attempts by small groups to mobilize the public against the bank bailouts and austerity. Donnacha will give an introduction to the documentary and there will be a short discussion afterwards.

Saturday June 14th
International perspectives and experiences
• Organising the anti-eviction movement in Spain: Michael Byrne (the Provisional University)
• Collective responses in Ireland to neoliberalization in a time of crisis: Learning from Latin America? Barry Cannon and Mary P. Murphy, Dept. of Sociology, National University of
• Exploring the Potentiality of Anti-Austerity Resistance in the UK, Department of Geography and Planning, Unviersity of Liverpool


Activist Reflections on strategies for future local and global resistance & solidarity in Ireland
• Shell to Sea (Maura Harrington)
• Spectacle of Defiance/Housing Action Now (John Bissett)
• SIPTU (Miriam Hamilton, Lead Organiser)
• We’re Not Leaving (Shane Fitzgerald)
• Claiming Our Future (Maureen Bassett)
• Migrants’ Rights Centre Ireland (Anatoliy Prymakov)
Please register to attend by email:
Facebook: Conference: Local Resistance, Global Crisis
With the kind support of Department of Geography, NUIM, NIRSA and Network of Politics, Power and Society NUIM
Directions to Maynooth:
Maynooth campus map:
How to get to Maynooth:

“Finance, Economy, Society – Geographical Perspectives” Seminar

Fri 30th May 2014, 11am-1pm,

Trinity College Dublin (TCD), Department of Geography, Museum Building, Seminar Room B.



Dr Sabine Dörry (Oxford University)

“Strategic nodes in investment fund global production networks: the example of Luxembourg”.

Dr Zoltán Gál (Hungarian Academy of Sciences / University of Kaposvar)

“The role of financial FDI in Central and Eastern Europe revisited: A financial geographer’s view in the context of the dependent market economies model “.


The event is free. Coffee/light refreshments will be provided at the beginning of the seminar.

Please email Martin Sokol ( if you wish to attend.


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